Variable Stars - Rotating
Hills Observatory: 1 January 2013 to 26 May 2020
Variable stars with nonuniform surface brightness and/or ellipsoidal shapes, whose variability is caused by axial rotation with respect to the observer. The nonuniformity of surface brightness distributions may be caused by the presence of spots or by some thermal or chemical inhomogeneity of the atmosphere caused by a magnetic field whose axis is not coincident with the rotation axis. These stars are subdivided into the following types: ACV Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum variables. These are main-sequence stars with spectral types B8p-A7p and displaying strong magnetic fields. Spectra show abnormally strong lines of Si, Sr, Cr, and rare earths whose intensities vary with rotation. They exhibit magnetic field and brightness changes (periods of 0.5-160 days or more). The amplitudes of the brightness changes are usually withine 0.01-0.1 mag in V. ACVO Rapidly oscillating Alpha2 CVn variables. These are nonradially pulsating, rotating magnetic variables of Ap spectral type (DO Eri). Pulsation periods are in the range of 6-12 mmag (0.004-0.01 days), while amplitudes of light variation caused by the pulsation are about 0.01 mag in V. The pulsational variations are superposed on those caused by rotation. BY BY Draconis-type variables, which are emission-line dwarfs of dKe-dMe spectral type showing quasiperiodic light changes with periods from a fraction of a day to 120 days and amplitudes from several hundredths to 0.5 mag in V. The light variability is caused by axial rotation of a star with a variable degree of nonuniformity of the surface brightness (spots) and chromospheric activity. Some of these stars also show flares similar to those of UV Cet stars, and in those cases they also belong to the latter type and are simultaneously considered eruptive variables. ELL Rotating ellipsoidal variables (b Per, Alpha Vir). These are close binary systems with ellipsoidal components, which change combined brightnesses with periods equal to those of orbital motion because of changes in emitting areas toward an observer, but showing no eclipses. Light amplitudes do not exceed 0.1 mag in V. FKCOM FK Comae Berenices-type variables. These are rapidly rotating giants with nonuniform surface brightnesses, which have G-K spectral types with broad H and K Ca II emission and sometimes Halpha. They may also be spectroscopic binary systems. Periods of light variation (up to several days) are equal to rotational periods, and amplitudes are several tenths of a magnitude. It is not excluded that these objects are the product of further evolution of EW (W UMa) close binary systems (see below). PSR Optically variable pulsars (CM Tau), which are rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, radiating in the radio, optical, and X-ray regions. Pulsars emit narrow beams of radiation, and periods of their light changes coincide with rotational periods (from 0.004 to 4 s), while amplitudes of the light pulses reach 0.8 mag. SXARI SX Arietis-type variables. These are main-sequence B0p-B9p stars with variable-intensity He I and Si III lines and magnetic fields. They are sometimes called helium variables. Periods of light and magnetic field changes (about 1 day) coincide with rotational periods, while amplitudes are approximately 0.1 mag in V. These stars are high-temperature analogs of the ACV variables.